筆勝鍵盤 寫字有利學習(Better learning through handwriting)筆勝鍵盤 寫字有利學習研究顯示,用手寫字的小孩與學生,學習能力比打字的兒童和學生強。  英國「每日郵報」(Daily Mail)報導,從筆與書本轉換到螢幕與鍵盤時,某種東西顯然在大腦運作過程中被遺漏了。  做出這項結論的科學家表示,這是因為閱讀與寫字需要使用我們的一些感官。10分鐘寫作趕走考試焦慮 用手寫字時,這個動作會在大腦的感覺動作區(sensorimotor)留下痕跡。這個過程有助於幫助我們認識字母。  只是觸碰鍵盤並打字,會在大腦產生不同反應,顯示這不會以相同方式強化學習機制。  在實驗時,兩組自願者被要求學習1種無人知道的字母。  每隔1週,他們記憶這種字母的表現,都會被紀錄下來。透過閱讀與寫字的方式學習字母,表現最好。  挪威史達溫格大學(Stavanger University)的閱讀專家曼根(Anne Mangen)教授與馬賽大學(Marseille University)的神經生理學家維里(帛琉Jean-Luc Velay),將他們的研究成果發表於Advancesin Haptics期刊。(譯者:中央社張曉雯)1000121 Better learning through handwritingAssociate professor Anne Mangen at the University of Stavanger ’s Reading Centre asks if something is lost in switching from book to computer screen, and from pen to keyboard.The process of reading and writing involves a number of senses, she explains. When writing by hand, our brain receives feedback from our motor actions, together with the sensation of touching a pencil and paper. These kinds of feedback is significantly different from those we receive when touching and typing on a keyboard.Learning by doingTogether with neurophysiologist Jean-Luc Velay at the University of Marseille , Anne Mangen has written an article published in the Advances in Haptics periodical. They have examined 會場佈置research which goes a long way in confirming the significance of these differences.An experiment carried out by Velay’s research team in Marseille establishes that different parts of the brain are activated when we read letters we have learned by handwriting, from those activated when we recognise letters we have learned through typing on a keyboard. When writing by hand, the movements involved leave a motor memory in the sensorimotor part of the brain, which helps us recognise letters. This implies a connection between reading and writing, and suggests that the sensorimotor system plays a role in the process of visual recognition during reading, Mangen explains.Other experiments suggest that the brain’s Brocas area is discernibly more activated when we are read a verb which is linked to a physical activity, compared 租房子with being read an abstract verb or a verb not associated with any action.“This also happens when you observe someone doing something. You don’t have to do anything yourself. Hearing about or watching some activity is often enough. It may even suffice to observe a familiar tool associated with a particular physical activity,” Mangen says.Since writing by hand takes longer than typing on a keyboard, the temporal aspect may also influence the learning process, she adds.The term ‘haptic’ refers to the process of touching and the way in which we communicate by touch, particularly by using our fingers and hands to explore our surroundings. Haptics include both our perceptions when we relate passively to our surroundings, and when we move and act.A lack of focusThere is a lot of research on haptics in relation to computer 21世紀房屋仲介games, in which for instance vibrating hand controls are employed. According to Mangen, virtual drills with sound and vibration are used for training dentists.But there has been very little effort to include haptics within the humanistic disciplines, she explains. In educational science, there is scant interest in the ergonomics of reading and writing, and its potential significance in the learning process.Mangen refers to an experiment involving two groups of adults, in which the participants were assigned the task of having to learn to write in an unknown alphabet, consisting of approximately twenty letters. One group was taught to write by hand, while the other was using a keyboard. Three and six weeks into the experiment, the participants’ recollection of these letters, as well as their rapidity in distinguishing 澎湖民宿right and reversed letters, were tested. Those who had learned the letters by handwriting came out best in all tests. Furthermore, fMRI brain scans indicated an activation of the Brocas area within this group. Among those who had learned by typing on keyboards, there was little or no activation of this area.“The sensorimotor component forms an integral part of training for beginners, and in special education for people with learning difficulties. But there is little awareness and understanding of the importance of handwriting to the learning process, beyond that of writing itself,” Mangen says.She refers to pedagogical research on writing, which has moved from a cognitive approach to a focus on contextual, social and cultural relations. In her opinion, a one-sided focus on context may lead to neglect of the individual, seophysiological, sensorimotor and phenomenological connections.Interdisciplinary collaboration Within the field of psychology, there is an awareness of the danger of paying too much attention on mentality. According to Mangen, perception and sensorimotor now play a more prominent role.“Our bodies are designed to interact with the world which surrounds us. We are living creatures, geared toward using physical objects - be it a book, a keyboard or a pen - to perform certain tasks,” she says.Being a media and reading researcher, Anne Mangen is a rare bird within her field of study. And she is very enthusiastic about her collaboration with a neurophysiologist.“We combine very different disciplines. Velay has carried out some very exciting experiments on the difference between handwriting and the use of keyboards, from a 室內裝潢neurophysiologic perspective. My contribution centres on how we – as humans with bodies and brains – experience the writing process, through using different technologies in different ways. And how these technologies’ interfaces influence our experience,” she concludes. Source:Medical Daily: Better learning through handwriting研究:想考高分?趕快拋開鍵盤拿起筆吧!想考高分?趕快放下電腦拿起筆吧!研究發現,使用鍵盤輸入的人學習能力遠不比用筆手寫的人。研究人員表示,提筆寫字時,在腦袋裡會留下叫做「感覺動作」(sensorimotor)的痕跡,而在鍵盤上敲敲打打可是沒有同樣功能的。 在研究當中,實驗者要學習一組新的字母表,當中分成「鍵盤學習組」以及「手寫學習組」,研究人員會臨時抽考實驗者,以調查學習成效,而「手寫學習組」的表現要好上許多。 研究人員之一的挪威教授梅根(Anne Mangen)表示,使用鍵盤打字在腦袋裡產生不同於手寫的反應,無法加深學習術後面膜印象。事實上,手寫花的時間也比打字多,研究人員認為,這或許也是一個幫助學習的原因。Handwriting better for kids than typingLondon: Children who write by hand make for better learners than those who type as researchers say something seems to be lost in the brain process when switching from pen and book to computer screen and keyboard.This is because reading and writing involves a number of our senses, the journal Advances in Haptics reports.When writing by hand, the movements involved leave an imprint in the part of the brain called the sensorimotor. This process helps humans recognise letters, according to the Daily Mail. Simply touching and typing on a keyboard produces a different response in the brain, which means it does not strengthen the learning mechanism in the same wayIn tests, two groups of volunteers were asked 信用貸款to learn an unknown alphabet. The first was taught to write the letters by hand, while the other used keyboards.At weekly intervals, their recollections of the alphabet were recorded. And those who learned the letters through reading and writing came out best.Anne Mangen, reading expert from Stavanger University in Norway , and neurophysiologist Jean-Luc Velay, Marseille University in France , conducted the study.Other experiments suggest the brain's Broca area linked to speech is discernibly more activated when we read a verb linked to a physical activity, compared with being read as an abstract verb or a verb not associated with any action."This also happens when you observe someone doing something. You don't have to do anything yourself," Mangen said. Read more at: 代償http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/handwriting-better-for-kids-than-typing-80825?cp

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